Otolaryngology

Capsaicin Nasal Spray for Idiopathic/Perennial Rhinitis

Capsaicin nasal spray has been shown to reduce nasal complaints in patients with non-allergic non-infectious perennial rhinitis. Blom et al. hypothesized that the beneficial effect of capsaicin might be the result of a down-regulation of inflammation, and showed that intranasal capsaicin spray gives a significant and long-term reduction of symptoms. In a double-blind parallel groups trial, 30 patients were randomized into two different treatment regimens: group A received capsaicin five times on the first day at one-hour intervals. This was followed by a placebo once every second or third day for a total of five treatments within 2 weeks after the initial capsaicin application. Group B received the placebo five times on the first day followed by capsaicin once every second or third day for a total of five treatments 2 weeks after the placebo application. The visual analogue scale scores for overall nasal symptoms, rhinorrhea and nasal blockage showed significant decrease after the start of treatment in both groups, with a significantly steeper decrease in group A. A significant reduction in cold dry air dose responsiveness was also found up to 9 months after therapy in both groups, reflecting a decrease in nasal hyperreactivity. No significant changes in smell, blood pressure, or heart rate were found. They concluded that intranasal capsaicin seems safe to use and that five treatments of capsaicin on a single day is at least as effective as five treatments of capsaicin in 2 weeks.

In a separate trial, a total of 208 patients affected by idiopathic rhinitis (IR) were enrolled in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Diagnosis of IR was made on the basis of history of nasal obstruction, sneezing and/or rhinorrhoea and after exclusion of other nasal/paranasal anatomic disorders. IR patients were randomized into four groups receiving increasing doses of capsaicin (Capsicum) or placebo. A significant reduction in the frequency of IR symptom was noticed in the group that received capsaicin 4 micrograms/puff, three times a day for 3 consecutive days. No significant difference in side effects was recorded in patients receiving capsaicin therapy when compared to controls.

Acta Otolaryngol. 2009 Apr;129(4):367-71.
Intranasal Capsicum spray in idiopathic rhinitis: a randomized prospective application regimen trial.
Ciabatti PG, D’Ascanio L.
Click here to access the PubMed abstract of this article.
Allergy. 2003 Aug;58(8):754-61.
Intranasal capsaicin reduces nasal hyperreactivity in idiopathic rhinitis: a double-blind randomized application regimen study.
Van Rijswijk JB, Boeke EL, Keizer JM, Mulder PG, Blom HM, Fokkens WJ.
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Clin Exp Allergy. 1998 Nov;28(11):1351-8
The long-term effects of capsaicin aqueous spray on the nasal mucosa.
Blom HM, Severijnen LA, Van Rijswijk JB, Mulder PG, Van Wijk RG, Fokkens WJ.
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Otitis Media
Treatment protocols have evolved considerably and will continue to change as new data continue to emerge regarding the bacteriology of chronic suppurative otitis media, bacterial resistance, and ototoxicity. Continuous surveillance is necessary to monitor antimicrobial resistance and to guide antibacterial therapy.

Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 2004 Aug;29(4):321-3.
Emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant pseudomonas in chronic suppurative otitis media.
Jang CH, Park SY.
Click here to access the PubMed abstract of this article.

David S. Haynes, MD, director of otology and neurotology at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center and the St. Thomas Hospital Neuroscience Institute in Nashville, and associate professor in the Department of Otolaryngology and the Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, notes that at Vanderbilt, physicians use a powder made up of amphotericin B, sulfanilamide, chloramphenicol, hydrocortisone, and corn starch to successfully treat refractory draining mastoid cavities and external ear infections. Powders have a mechanical drying effect and can be used to deliver antibiotics and other agents (i.e., antifungals) that are not commercially available as ototopical agents.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2002 Aug;81(8 Suppl 1):13-5.
Perioperative antibiotics in chronic suppurative otitis media.
Haynes DS.
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Xylitol for Otitis Media

In two clinical trials (of three months duration), oral xylitol in a daily dose of 8.4-10 g given in five divided doses was found to reduce the incidence of acute otitis media (AOM) by 35-40% in young children. The need for antimicrobials decreased markedly when using xylitol. Xylitol appears to be an attractive alternative to prevent AOM. However, in a high-risk group of children with tympanostomy tubes, xylitol was ineffective in preventing otitis.
Vaccine. 2000 Dec 8;19 Suppl 1:S144-7.
Xylitol in preventing acute otitis media.
Uhari M, Tapiainen T, Kontiokari T.
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This study found that “Oral xylitol solution at dosages of 5g TID and 7.5g QD is well-tolerated by young children.”

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007 Jan;71(1):89-94. Epub 2006 Nov 9.
Tolerability of oral xylitol solution in young children: implications for otitis media prophylaxis.
Vernacchio L, Vezina RM, Mitchell AA.
Click here to access the PubMed abstract of this article.

Xylitol inhibits the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae and inhibits the attachment of both pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae to the nasopharyngeal cells.

Vaccine. 2000 Dec 8;19 Suppl 1:S144-7.
Xylitol in preventing acute otitis media.
Uhari M, Tapiainen T, Kontiokari T.
Click here to access the PubMed abstract of this article.

 


The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Head and Neck Institute, reports that mupirocin nasal irrigations may avoid the need for intravenous antibiotics, which often provide temporary benefits and entail greater cost and morbidity. Thus, mupirocin nasal irrigations may provide a relatively simple means for the management of MRSA exacerbations of CRS.
Am J Otolaryngol. 2006 May-Jun;27(3):161-5.
Treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis exacerbations due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with mupirocin irrigations.
Solares CA et al.
Click here to access the PubMed abstract of this article.
Nasal lavage with 0.05% mupirocin was well tolerated and may represent an effective alternative treatment for postsurgical recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis.

Laryngoscope. 2008 Sep;118(9):1677-80.
Nasal lavage with mupirocin for the treatment of surgically recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis.
Uren B, Psaltis A, Wormald PJ.

Click here to access the PubMed abstract of this article.

 

Results of this study indicate that topical fluconazole application may help patients with allergic fungal sinusitis.

Ear Nose Throat J. 2004 Oct;83(10):692, 694-5.
Fluconazole nasal spray in the treatment of allergic fungal sinusitis: a pilot study.
Jen A, Kacker A, Huang C, Anand V.

Click here to access the PubMed abstract of this article.

 


Betahistine for Treatment of Acute Vestibular Vertigo & Meniere’s Disease
Betahistine at oral doses of 16 mg tid and 24 mg bid provides similar efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of vertigo in patients with Meniere’s disease. The efficacy and safety profile of betahistine in the treatment of vertigo due to peripheral vestibular disorders was confirmed.

Acta Otolaryngol. 2008 Jul 10:1-6.
Effects of semicircular canal electrode implantation on hearing in chinchillas.
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Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2001 Jun;21(3 Suppl 66):1-7
Betahistine in the treatment of vertigo. History and clinical implications of recent pharmacological researches.
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Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2003 Feb;260(2):73-7. Epub 2002 Sep 11
Betahistine dihydrochloride in the treatment of peripheral vestibular vertigo.
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Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 2000;544:34-9
A review of medical treatment for Ménière’s disease.
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Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999 Mar;120(3):400-5

Betahistine increases vestibular blood flow.
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Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 1991;479, pp. 44-47
Treatment of acute vestibular vertigo.
Click here to access the PubMed abstract of this article.


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